Kamis, 16 Mei 2013

Nilai Normal Laboratorium


Setiap laboratorium menentukan nilai ‘normal’, yang ditunjukkan pada kolom ‘Nilai Rujukan’ atau ‘Nilai Normal’ pada laporan laboratorium.
Determination
Normal Reference Value

Conventional units
SI units
Blood, Plasma or Serum
Ammonia (NH3) – diffusion
20-120 mcg/dl
12-70 mcmol/L
Ammonia Nitrogen
15-45 µg/dl
11-32 µmol/L
Amylase
35-118 IU/L
0.58-1.97 mckat/L
Anion gap (Na+-[Cl - + HCO3- ]) (P)
7-16 mEq/L
7-16 mmol/L
Antithrombin III (AT III)
80–120 U/dl
800–1200 U/L
Bicarbonate
Arterial
21–28 mEq/L
21–28 mmol/L
Venous
22–29 mEq/L
22–29 mmol/L
Bilirubin
Conjugated (direct) Total
£ 0.2 mg/dl
&
0.1–1 mg/dl
£ 4 mcmol/L
&
2–18 mcmol/L
Calcitonin
< 100 pg/ml
< 100 ng/L
Calcium
Total
8.6–10.3 mg/dl
2.2–2.74 mmol/L
Ionized
4.4–5.1 mg/dl
1–1.3 mmol/L

Carbon dioxide content (plasma)
21–32 mmol/L
21–32 mmol/L
Carcinoembryonic antigen
< 3 ng/ml
< 3 mcg/L
Chloride
95–110 mEq/L
95–110 mmol/L
Coagulation screen
Bleeding time
3–9.5 min
180–570 sec
Prothrombin time
10–13 sec
10–13 sec
Partial thromboplastin time (activated)
22–37 sec
22–37 sec
Protein C
0.7–1.4 µ/ml
700–1400 U/ml
Protein S
0.7–1.4 µ/ml
700–1400 U/ml
Copper, total
70–160 mcg/dl
11–25 mcmol/L
Corticotropin (ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone) – 0800 hr
< 60 pg/ml
< 13.2 pmol/L
Cortisol
0800 hr
5–30 mcg/dl
138–810 nmol/L
1800 hr
2–15 mcg/dl
50–410 nmol/L
2000 hr
£ 50% of 0800 hr
£ 50% of 0800 hr
Creatine kinase
Female
20–170 IU/L
0.33–2.83 mckat/L
Male
30–220 IU/L
0.5–3.67 mckat/L
Creatinine kinase isoenzymes, MB fraction
0–12 IU/L
0–0.2 mckat/L
Creatinine
0.5–1.7 mg/dl
44–150 mcmol/L
Fibrinogen (coagulation factor I)
150–360 mg/dl
1.5–3.6 g/L
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Female
2–13 mlU/ml
2–13 IU/L
Midcycle
5–22 mlU/ml
5–22 IU/L
Male
1–8 mlU/ml
1–8 IU/L

Glucose, fasting
65–115 mg/dl
3.6–6.3 mmol/L

Glucose Tolerance Test (Oral)

(mg/dl)
(mmol/L)

Normal
Diabetic
Normal
Diabetic
Fasting
70–105
> 140
3.9–5.8
> 7.8
60 min
120–170
³ 200
6.7–9.4
³ 11.1
90 min
100–140
³ 200
5.6–7.8
³ 11.1
120 min
70–120
³ 140
3.9–6.7
³ 7.8
(g) – Glutamyltransferase (GGT)
Male
9–50 units/L
9–50 units/L
Female
8–40 units/L
8–40 units/L

Haptoglobin
44–303 mg/dl
0.44–3.03 g/L
Hematologic Tests
Fibrinogen
200–400 mg/dl
2–4 g/L
Hematocrit (Hct)
female
36%-44.6%
0.36–0.446 fraction of 1
male
40.7%-50.3%
0.4–0.503 fraction of 1
Hemoglobin A 1C
5.3%-7.5% of total Hgb
0.053–0.075
Hemoglobin (Hb)
female
12.1–15.3 g/dl
121–153 g/L
male
13.8–17.5 g/dl
138–175 g/L
Leukocyte count (WBC)
3800–9800/mcl
3.8–9.8 x 109/L
Erythrocyte count (RBC)
female
3.5–5 x 106/mcl
3.5–5 x 1012/L
male
4.3–5.9 x 106/mcl
4.3–5.9 x 1012/L

Mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
80–97.6 mcm3
80–97.6 fl
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)
27–33 pg/cell
1.66–2.09 fmol/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrate (MCHC)
33–36 g/dl
20.3–22 mmol/L
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (sedrate, ESR)
£30 mm/hr
£30 mm/hr
Erythrocyte enzymes
Glucose-6 – Pphosphate dehydrognase (G-6-PD)
250–5000 units/106cells
250–5000 mcunits/cell

Determination
Reference Value

(Conventional units)
(SI units)
Blood, Plasma or Serum:
Ammonia (NH3) – diffusion
20–120 mcg/dl
12–70 mcmol/L
Ammonia Nitrogen
15–45 µg/dl
11–32 µmol/L
Amylase
35–118 IU/L
0.58–1.97 mckat/L
Anion gap (Na+-[Cl - + HCO3-]) (P)
7–16 mEq/L
7–16 mmol/L
Antithrombin III (AT III)
80–120 U/dl
800–1200 U/L
Bicarbonate:
Arterial
Venous
21–28 mEq/L
22–29 mEq/L
21–28 mmol/L
22–29 mmol/L
Bilirubin: Conjugated (direct) Total
£ 0.2 mg/dl
(0.1–1 mg/dl)
£ 4 mcmol/L
(2–18 mcmol/L)
Calcitonin
< 100 pg/ml
< 100 ng/L
Calcium:
Total

Ionized
8.6–10.3 mg/dl
4.4–5.1 mg/dl
2.2–2.74 mmol/L
1–1.3 mmol/L
Carbon dioxide content (plasma)
21–32 mmol/L
21–32 mmol/L
Carcinoembryonic antigen
< 3 ng/ml
< 3 mcg/L
Chloride
95–110 mEq/L
95–110 mmol/L
Coagulation screen:
Bleeding time
Prothrombin time
Partial thromboplastin time (activated)
Protein C
Protein S
3–9.5 min
10–13 sec
22–37 sec
0.7–1.4 µ/ml
0.7–1.4 µ/ml
180–570 sec
10–13 sec
22–37 sec
700–1400 U/ml
700–1400 U/ml
Copper, total
70–160 mcg/dl
11–25 mcmol/L
Corticotropin
(ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone) – 0800 hr
< 60 pg/ml
< 13.2 pmol/L
Cortisol:
0800 hr

1800 hr

2000 hr
5–30 mcg/dl
2–15 mcg/dl
£ 50% of 0800 hr
138–810 nmol/L
50–410 nmol/L
£ 50% of 0800 hr
Creatine kinase:
Female

Male
20–170 IU/L
30–220 IU/L
0.33–2.83 mckat/L
0.5–3.67 mckat/L
Creatinine kinase isoenzymes, MB fraction
0–12 IU/L
0–0.2 mckat/L
Creatinine
0.5–1.7 mg/dl
44–150 mcmol/L
Fibrinogen (coagulation factor I)
150–360 mg/dl
1.5–3.6 g/L
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH):
Female
Midcycle
Male
2–13 mlU/ml
5–22 mlU/ml
1–8 mlU/ml
2–13 IU/L
5–22 IU/L
1–8 IU/L
Glucose, fasting
65–115 mg/dl
3.6–6.3 mmol/L
Glucose Tolerance Test (Oral)
Fasting
60 min
90 min
120 min
(mg/dl)
Normal
Diabetic
70–105
> 140
120–170
³ 200
100–140
³ 200
70–120
³ 140
(mmol/L)
Normal
Diabetic
3.9–5.8
> 7.8
6.7–9.4
³ 11.1
5.6–7.8
³ 11.1
3.9–6.7
³ 7.8
(g) -Glutamyltransferase (GGT):
Male
Female
9–50 units/L
8–40 units/L
9–50 units/L
8–40 units/L
Haptoglobin
44–303 mg/dl
0.44–3.03 g/L



Determination
Reference Value
Conventional units
SI units
Hematologic tests:
Fibrinogen
Hematocrit (Hct),
female
male
Hemoglobin A 1C
Hemoglobin (Hb),
female
male
Leukocyte count (WBC)
Erythrocyte count (RBC):
female
male
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin
(MCH)
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin
concentrate (MCHC)
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
(sedrate, ESR)
200–400 mg/dl
36%-44.6%
40.7%-50.3%
5.3%-7.5% of total Hgb
12.1–15.3 g/dl
13.8–17.5 g/dl
3800–9800/mcl
3.5–5 x 106/mcl
4.3–5.9 x 106/mcl
80–97.6 mcm3
27–33 pg/cell
33–36 g/dl
£30 mm/hr
2–4 g/L
0.36–0.446 fraction of 1
0.4–0.503 fraction of 1
0.053–0.075
121–153 g/L
138–175 g/L
3.8–9.8 x 109/L
3.5–5 x 1012/L
4.3–5.9 x 1012/L
80–97.6 fl
1.66–2.09 fmol/cell
20.3–22 mmol/L
£ 30 mm/hr
Erythrocyte enzymes:
Glucose-6 -
Pphosphate dehydrognase
(G-6-PD)
Ferritin
Folic acid: normal
Platelet count
Reticulocytes
Vitamin B12
250–5000 units/106cells
10–383 ng/ml
>3.1–12.4 ng/ml
150–450 x 103/mcl
0.5%-1.5% of erythrocytes
223–1132 pg/ml
250–5000 mcunits/cell
23–862 pmol/L
7–28.1 nmol/L
150–450 x 109/L
0.005–0.015
165–835 pmol/L
Iron:
Female

Male
30–160 mcg/dl
45–160 mcg/dl
5.4–31.3 mcmol/L
8.1–31.3 mcmol/L
Iron binding capacity
220–420 mcg/dl
39.4–75.2 mcmol/L
Isocitrate dehydrogenase
1.2–7 units/L
1.2–7 units/L
Isoenzymes
Fraction 1
Fraction 2
Fraction 3
Fraction 4
Fraction 5
14%-26% of total
29%-39% of total
20%-26% of total
8%-16% of total
6%-16% of total
0.14–0.26 fraction of total
0.29–0.39 fraction of total
0.20–0.26 fraction of total
0.08–0.16 fraction of total
0.06–0.16 fraction of total
Lactate dehydrogenase
100–250 IU/L
1.67–4.17 mckat/L
Lactic acid (lactate)
6–19 mg/dl
0.7–2.1 mmol/L
Lead
£ 50 mcg/dl
£ 2.41 mcmol/L
Lipase
10–150 units/L
10–150 units/L
Lipids:
Total Cholesterol
Desirable
Borderline-high
High
LDL
Desirable
Borderline-high
High
HDL (low)
Triglycerides
Desirable
Borderline-high
High
Very high
< 200 mg/dl
200–239 mg/dl
> 239 mg/dl
< 130 mg/dl
130–159 mg/dl
> 159 mg/dl
< 35 mg/dl
< 200 mg/dl
200–400 mg/dl
400–1000 mg/dl
> 1000 mg/dl
< 5.2 mmol/L
< 5.2–6.2 mmol/L
> 6.2 mmol/L
< 3.36 mmol/L
3.36–4.11 mmol/L
> 4.11 mmol/L
< 0.91 mmol/L
< 2.26 mmol/L
2.26–4.52 mmol/L
4.52–11.3 mmol/L
> 11.3 mmol/L
Magnesium
1.3–2.2 mEq/L
0.65–1.1 mmol/L
Osmolality
280–300 mOsm/kg
280–300 mmol/kg
Oxygen saturation (arterial)
94%-100%
0.94 – fraction of 1
PCO2, arterial
35–45 mm Hg
4.7–6 kPa
pH, arterial
7.35–7.45
7.35–7.45



Determination
Reference Value
Conventional units
SI units
PO, arterial: Breathing room air
On 100% O
80–105 mm Hg
> 500 mm Hg
10.6–14 kPa
Phosphatase (acid), total at 37°C
0.13–0.63 IU/L
2.2–10.5 IU/L or
2.2–10.5 mckat/L
Phosphatase alkaline
20–130 IU/L
20–130 IU/L or
0.33–2.17 mckat/L
Phosphorus, inorganic, (phosphate)
2.5–5 mg/dl
0.8–1.6 mmol/L
Potassium
3.5–5 mEq/L
3.5–5 mmol/L
Progesterone
Female
Follicular phase
Luteal phase
Male
0.1–1.5 ng/ml
0.1–1.5 ng/ml
2.5–28 ng/ml
< 0.5 ng/ml
0.32–4.8 nmol/L
0.32–4.8 nmol/L
8–89 nmol/L
< 1.6 nmol/L
Prolactin
1.4–24.2 ng/ml
1.4–24.2 mcg/L
Prostate specific antigen
Protein: Total
Albumin
Globulin
0–4 ng/ml
6–8 g/dl
3.6–5 g/dl
2.3–3.5 g/dl
0–4 ng/ml
60–80 g/L
36–50 g/L
23–35 g/L
Rheumatoid factor
< 60 IU/ml
< 60 kIU/L
Sodium
135–147 mEq/L
135–147 mmol/L
Testosterone:
Female
Male
6–86 ng/dl
270–1070 ng/dl
0.21–3 nmol/L
9.3–37 nmol/L
Thyroid Hormone Function Tests:
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Thyroxine-binding globulin capacity
Total triiodothyronine (T3)
Total thyroxine by RIA (T4)
T3 resin uptake
0.35–6.2 mcU/ml
10–26 mcg/dl
75–220 ng/dl
4–11 mcg/dl
25%-38%
0.35–6.2 mU/L
100–260 mcg/L
1.2–3.4 nmol/L
51–142 nmol/L
0.25–0.38 fraction of 1
Transaminase, AST (aspartate aminotransferase, SGOT)
11–47 IU/L
0.18–0.78 mckat/L
Transaminase, ALT (alanine aminotransferase, SGPT)
7–53 IU/L
0.12–0.88 mckat/L
Transferrin
220–400 mg/dL
2.20–4.00 g/L
Urea nitrogen (BUN)
8–25 mg/dl
2.9–8.9 mmol/L
Uric acid
3–8 mg/dl
179–476 mcmol/L
Vitamin A (retinol)
15–60 mcg/dl
0.52–2.09 mcmol/L
Zinc
50–150 mcg/dl
7.7–23 mcmol/L
1 Tergantung pada usia
2 Bayi dan anak sampai 104 U/L
3 Bayi usia 1 tahun sampai 6 mg/dl
Urine
Determination
Reference Value
Conventional units
SI units
Calcium
50–250 mcg/day
1.25–6.25 mmol/day
Catecholamines:
Epinephrine
Norepinephrine
< 20 mcg/day
< 100 mcg/day
< 109 nmol/day
< 590 nmol/day
Catecholamines, 24-hr
< 110 µg
< 650 nmol
Copper
15–60 mcg/day
0.24–0.95 mcmol/day
Creatinine:
Child
Adolescent
Female
Male
8–22 mg/kg
8–30 mg/kg
0.6–1.5 g/day
0.8–1.8 g/day
71–195 µmol/kg
71–265 µmol/kg
5.3–13.3 mmol/day
7.1–15.9 mmol/day
pH
4.5–8
4.5–8
Phosphate
0.9–1.3 g/day
29–42 mmol/day
Potassium
25–100 mEq/day
25–100 mmol/day
Protein
Total
At rest
1–14 mg/dL
50–80 mg/day
10–140 mg/L
50–80 mg/day
Protein, quantitative
< 150 mg/day
< 0.15 g/day
Sodium
100–250 mEq/day
100–250 mmol/day
Specific gravity, random
1.002–1.030
1.002–1.030
Uric acid, 24-hr
250–750 mg
1.48–4.43 mmol
1 Tergantung pada diet.
Drug Levels*
Drug Determination
Reference Value
Conventional units
SI units
Aminoglycosides
Amikacin
(trough)
(peak)
1–8 mcg/ml
1.7–13.7 mcmol/L
20–30 mcg/ml
34–51 mcmol/L
Gentamicin
(trough)
(peak)
0.5–2 mcg/ml
6–10 mcg/ml
1–4.2 mcmol/L
12.5–20.9 mcmol/L
Kanamycin
(trough)
(peak)
5–10 mcg/ml
20–25 mcg/ml
nd
nd
Netilimicin
(trough)
(peak)
0.5–2 mcg/ml
6–10 mcg/ml
nd
nd
Streptomycin
(trough)
(peak)
< 5 mcg/ml
5–20 mcg/ml
nd
nd
Tobramycin
(trough)
(peak)
0.5–2 mcg/ml
5–20 mcg/ml
1.1–4.3 mcmol/L
12.8–21.8 mcmol/L




Drug Determination
Reference Value
Conventional units
SI units
Antiarrhythmics
Amiodarone
0.5–2.5 mcg/ml
1.5–4 mcmol/L
Bretylium
0.5–1.5 mcg/ml
nd
Digitoxin
9–25 mcg/L
11.8–32.8 nmol/L
Digoxin
0.8–2 ng/ml
0.9–2.5 nmol/L
Disopyramide
2–8 mcg/ml
6–18 mcmol/L
Flecainide
0.2–1 mcg/ml
nd
Lidocaine
1.5–6 mcg/ml
4.5–21.5 mcmol/L
Mexiletine
0.5–2 mcg/ml
nd
Procainamide
4–8 mcg/ml
17–34 mcmol/ml
Propranolol
50–200 ng/ml
190–770 nmol/L
Quinidine
2–6 mcg/ml
4.6–9.2 mcmol/L
Tocainide
4–10 mcg/ml
nd
Verapamil
0.08–0.3 mcg/ml
nd
Anticonvulsants
Carbamazepine
4–12 mcg/ml
17–51 mcmol/L
Phenobarbital
10–40 mcg/ml
43–172 mcmol/L
Phenytoin
10–20 mcg/ml
40–80 mcmol/L
Primidone
4–12 mcg/ml
18–55 mcmol/L
Valproic Acid
40–100 mcg/ml
280–700 mcmol/L
Antidepressants
Amitriptyline
110–250 ng/ml
500–900 nmol/L
Amoxapine
200–500 ng/ml
nd
Bupropion
25–100 ng/ml
nd
Clomipramine
80–100 ng/ml
nd
Desipramine
115–300 ng/ml
nd
Doxepin
110–250 ng/ml
nd
Imipramine
225–350 ng/ml
nd
Maprotiline
200–300 ng/ml
nd
Nortriptyline
50–150 ng/ml
nd
Protriptyline
70–250 ng/ml
nd
Trazodone
800–1600 ng/ml
nd
Antipsychotics
Chlorpromazine
50–300 ng/ml
150–950 nmol/L
Fluphenazine
0.13–2.8 ng/ml
nd
Haloperidol
5–20 ng/ml
nd
Perphenazine
0.8–1.2 ng/ml
nd
Thiothixene
2–57 ng/ml
nd




Drug Determination
Reference Value
Conventional units
SI units
Miscellaneous
Amantadine
Amrinone
300 ng/ml
3.7 mcg/ml
nd
nd
Chloramphenicol
10–20 mcg/ml
31–62 mcmol/L
Cyclosporine
250–800 ng/ml
(whole blood, RIA)
50–300 ng/ml (plasma, RIA)
nd
nd
Ethanol
0 mg/dl
0 mmol/L
Hydralazine
100 ng/ml
nd
Lithium
0.6–1.2 mEq/L
0.6–1.2 mmol/L
Salicylate
100–300 mg/L
724–2172 mcmol/L
Sulfonamide
5–15 mg/dl
nd
Terbutaline
0.5–4.1 ng/ml
nd
Theophylline
10–20 mcg/ml
55–110 mcmol/L
Vancomycin
(trough)
(peak)
5–15 ng/ml
20–40 mcg/ml
nd
nd
* Nilai yang diberikan secara umum dapat digunakan untuk terapi tanpa terjadi efek toksik pada kebanyakan pasien, Namun pengecualian juga tidak jarang terjadi.
1 nd = data tidak tersedia.
2 Metabolit N-desmethyl beserta turunannya.
3 Nilai 24 jam.
4 Toksik: 50–100 mg/dl (10.9–21.7 mmol/L).
Diambil dari The Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, National Institutes of Health.
Classification of Blood Pressure *
Category
Reference value
Systolic (mm Hg)
Diastolic (mm Hg)
Optimal
< 120
and
< 80
Normal
< 130
and
< 85
High-normal
130–139
or
85–89
Hypertension
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
140–159
160–179
³ 180
or
or
or
90–99
100–109
³ 110
* Untuk dewasa berusia 18 atau lebih yang tidak dalam pengobatan anti hipertensi dan tidak dalam kondisi akut. Ketika tekanan sistole dan diastole masuk ke dalam kategori lain, maka kategori di atasnya harus dipilih untuk menentukan klasifikasi status tekanan darah penderita. Sebagai tambahan dalam menentukan stadium hipertensi, seorang praktisi medis harus menentukan ada atau tidaknya penyakit pada target organ serta faktor resiko lainnya.
1 Tekanan darah yang optimal terhadap resiko kardiovaskular adalah dibawah 120/88 m Hg. Namun demikian, nilai rendah yang tidak wajar harus dievaluasi untuk menemukan kelainan klinis yang signifikan.
2 Berdasarkan atas pembacaan sebanyak 2 kali atau lebih pada pemeriksaan awal.

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